To answer you briefly, I should say that it was my great good fortune to have lived a rich and eventful life. I regard it as my particular privilege that I experienced the years 1917–19. For I come from a bourgeois background—my father was a banker in Budapest—and even though I had adopted a somewhat individual oppositionism in Nyugat,footnote1 nonetheless I was part of the bourgeois opposition. I would not venture to say—I could not—that the purely negative impact of the First World War would have been enough to make a socialist out of me. It was undoubtedly the Russian Revolution and the revolutionary
To be frank, a writer may experience this state from time to time, while writing. It happens that I feel that I’ve managed to express what I wanted to. It is a different question, how it will look three days later. All I am saying is that this state does exist.
One must make a distinction here between subjective and objective elements. Subjectively, I would say, it was already clear by the 1920’s—let alone today—that those very intense hopes with which we followed the Russian Revolution from 1917 on were not to be fulfilled: the wave of world revolution, in which we placed our confidence, did not come to pass. The fact that the Revolution remained limited to the Soviet Union is not the result of one man’s theories, but of the facts of world history. One’s subjective hopes remain unfulfilled in this sense. On the other hand, someone who calls himself a Marxist—and will, therefore, regard himself as a student of history—must know that no great social transformation has taken place overnight. Millennia passed before primitive communism became a class society. Or, to give an example from historical times, we can now follow the history of the dissolution of societies based on slavery and can conclude that it took eight hundred, nearly a thousand, years of crises for it to evolve into feudalism. Consequently, the more one is a Marxist, the more one
You will forgive me, if I do not give you a straight answer to this. I have no great opinion of modern bourgeois philosophy. It is understandable that when people in socialist countries are disappointed in the Stalinist deformations of Marxism, they should turn towards Western philosophy, just as you can easily find a woman deceived by her husband in anyone’s arms that night. I must confess that I have no great opinion of bourgeois philosophy and that I regard Hegel as the last great bourgeois thinker. If the American or German or French press should declare X or Y to be a great thinker, and if consequently people disappointed by Stalinism imagine that they could remedy Marxism by structuralism, for instance, then—and please do not take it amiss that I should say so openly—I regard this as illusory. I disapprove of the fact that during the Stalinist period official Marxism should have isolated itself completely from the fruits of non-Soviet developments. This was wrong and un-Marxist. For Marx, Engels and Lenin always followed contemporary philosophy and scientific thought with the greatest attention; but, let us add, with the greatest critical attention. If you observe Marx’s career, you will see that it was not only such outstanding figures as Darwin and Morgan who influenced his thinking. For instance, he was passionately interested in Liebig’s agrochemical experiments, in Mauser’s historical researches and so on. But one must add that Marx’s view of his so-called great contemporaries—I am thinking here of Comte and Herbert Spencer—was dismissive and scornful. I can understand psychologically how today’s Marxists are forever seeking support in the West for their reforms, but I regard it as objectively incorrect. What I would regard as necessary is that we should understand Marxism well, that we should return to its real methodology and that we should try to understand, by employing this methodology, the history of the era after the death of Marx. This has yet to be worked out from a theoretical Marxist standpoint. It is one of the greatest sins of Marxism that there has been no real economic analysis of capitalism since Lenin’s book on imperialism—which was written in 1916. Likewise, there is no real historical and economic analysis of the development of socialism. Hence the task that I see for Marxists is that they should examine critically what we can learn from Western writing. It is beyond doubt that in numerous areas of the natural sciences they have achieved enormous results from which we can certainly learn. Secondly, it is my opinion that writings in philoso
What I mean by official Marxism is that Marxism which developed in the Soviet Union after Stalin gained an ideological, political and organizational victory over Trotsky, Bukharin and others. This came about as a process. I don’t want to go into details, but one thing is certain: one cannot say that up to a given day there was Leninism and the next day Stalin introduced Stalinism. Rather, in the course of a process lasting more than ten years, Marxism was reinterpreted to fit the needs of the results of Stalinist rule. I have written of the basic principles of this several times. If I may repeat myself, what this consisted of was the following: Marx derived a great world-historical perspective from an all-embracing dialectical method and he attempted to lay its economic and political foundations in every kind of way. This perspective provided the ultimate motive force for Marx’s activities. This ultimate force was what enabled him to analyse strategic situations in every era and in every situation, and within the strategic situation, the tactical causes. Stalin turned all this on its head. For Stalin it was the tactical situation at any one time that was paramount and it was for this tactical situation that he created a strategy and a general theory. Let us say, even if the 20th Congress did condemn Stalin’s doctrine that the class struggle underwent continuous intensification in socialism, it still failed to declare—unfortunately—that the problem is not that Stalin concluded this and basing himself on this conclusion, prepared the Great Purges against Bukharin and others. The problem is rather that Stalin felt he had a tactical need for these purges. He carried out the purges and then made up a theory for them, according to which the class struggle intensifies under socialism. I could illustrate this with an even more pregnant episode where Stalin was actually in the right tactically. When he signed his pact with Hitler in 1939, he took a tactically correct step. There followed that phase of the war, in which Britain and the United States fought Hitler in a common alliance with the ussr which succeeded in warding off the danger of Nazism. To my mind, the great question is whether this would have occurred without Stalin’s initial tactical move. As against this, when Stalin decreed in 1939 that the Second World War was in essence no different from the First, and that the task for Communist Parties was therefore still the Liebknechtian one of fighting the enemy at home, then—starting from a tactically correct step—he gave, in the name of the Comintern, catastrophically incorrect advice to the French and British parties. I think the grotesque results produced by Stalinist methods are shown