At present, the fundamental contradiction in the Arab Middle East can be seen as one opposing the Arab peoples—including the Palestinian people—to both Zionist territorial colonialism, represented by the state of Israel, and Western neo-imperialism, represented by the ruling Arab oligarchies. As such it is the condensation of the two contradictions (the national and the class contradictions) into one fundamental one. These two contradictions are:

Imperialism + Zionism vs the Palestinian people + the Arab masses; Imperialism + the Arab oligarchies vs the Arab masses.

Condensed, but by no means abolished, the national and class contradictions alternate in occupying the dominant position within the fundamental contradiction. The phases of the development of the Arab revolution (as the combined anti-Zionist and anti-imperialist struggle) are determined by this displacement of the principal aspects of the fundamental contradiction.

But the leadership of the anti-Zionist struggle is not the same as that of the class struggle. Whereas the Arab oligarchies appear to partake in the leadership of the former, they constitute the direct target, i.e. the internal enemy, of the latter. Once this is established the problematic of the Arab revolution emerges immediately. The central question is: What is the nature of the relation between the national struggle and the class struggle in the Middle East? In other words: How is one to think out the unity, and distinction, of the two interlocked struggles and their mutual interrelation within this unity? A host of related questions of a theoretical and strategic order are bound to follow: How, and to what extent, is the national struggle able to offset, mask, or—on the contrary—detonate and intensify the class struggle (and vice-versa) and in what conditions is the victory of the one a precondition for the victory of the other?

Before attempting a historical analysis of the Palestinian problem, it is essential to define the two related targets of the revolutionary struggle: Zionism, and neo-imperialism.