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New Left Review I/73, May-June 1972

Stephen Castles and Godula Kosack

The Function of Labour Immigration in Western European Capitalism

The domination of the working masses by a small capitalist ruling class has never been based on violence alone. Capitalist rule is based on a range of mechanisms, some objective products of the economic process, others subjective phenomena arising through manipulation of attitudes. Two such mechanisms, which received considerable attention from the founders of scientific socialism, are the industrial reserve army, which belongs to the first category, and the labour aristocracy, which belongs to the second. These two mechanisms are closely related, as are the objective and subjective factors which give rise to them.

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Stephen Castles, Godula Kosack, ‘The Function of Labour Immigration in Western European Capitalism’, NLR I/73: £3

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