Critical Theory: The Philosophy of Marcuse
1. A vision dominates Marcuse’s career, explaining both his hope and his despair. It derives from German Philosophy of History, from which he appropriated the conviction that the history of humanity  scilicet European civilization. can be read as the result of a great project, drafted and executed by a single agency, mankind. The content of the project varies. Immanuel Kant thought it was a movement towards perpetual peace. Hegel replaced peace by liberty, and for him history was the growth in man’s awareness of his freedom. Marx accepted both ends, but subordinated them to a larger goal he thought would guarantee them: the conquest of and reunion with nature, which was once so hostile that men had to separate themselves from it and wage a long technological war that reproduced itself in battles between and inside men.
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