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Within the epic sweep of Tolstoy’s War and Peace, Hayden White argues, three genres are braided together: historical, novelistic and philosophical. If the former two—and the battles, loves and deaths they recount—continue the line of European realism, in the third Tolstoy presents history as a force beyond human control, in a bid to dismantle ideologies of progress.
AGAINST HISTORICAL REALISM
A Reading of ‘War and Peace’
We Russians in general do not know how to write novels in the sense in which this genre is understood in Europe. 
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